Kulchytsy – with a peculiar solution of three multi-storey log cabins without side towers (XVII), in the village of
Among these deviations we distinguish many nuances of leveling of three traditional fellings deduced from the earth.
We notice the unification of clear three-part divisions into generalized volumes, into forms connected by common roofs, into the general form of a church based on a house or a dwelling house, with the approach of such a form to the basilica, often on two floors.
In such temples there are often only hints of the disappeared traditional three-log house with the participation of projections of the central nave in the form of three ends, which do not constitute three organic crowns of separate towers, but are artificially superimposed decorative forms on ordinary four-sloped or eight-sloped roofs.
There are also forms of churches, similar to two-story houses with one small tower, built on the ridge of the roof only in the middle, or marking three points on the ridge of the roof (west end, center and east end) with only three crosses.
There are also forms of churches, combined from fragments of an ordinary house and a whole tower, removed from the ground, and forms of churches with various additions from the north or south.
Monuments of national and world significance During numerous presentations at academic forums on Ukrainian architecture in wood, we were repeatedly asked questions: which monuments of this art do we consider to be of national importance, and which are of world importance.
Our response was, in general, as follows:
The national “golden fund” of monuments of folk architecture includes those examples of construction skills that fall into one of these four categories:
antiquity, ie exceptionally happy circumstances in which a certain monument from the XV or XVI century has been preserved, although it was built of such an unstable material as wood (which easily rots or burns); characteristic of the general image in the understanding of fidelity to traditional national forms; the presence of original local components and details that enrich the forms of national construction skills; valuable artistic qualities of an architectural monument as a whole or only certain parts of it.
Of course, one monument can combine two, three, or even all four positive features to determine its value in terms of national. Unfortunately, only after the two world wars do we begin to take more seriously the protection and accurate accounting of the monuments of the past.
Looking at the samples of wooden bell towers, for which the main profiles are given in this work, we will dwell on some of them.
All five bell towers of the XVI century are included in the national fund not only because of their antiquity, but also given the pronounced traditional forms: from p. Potelych in 1502, from Kovel – in 1505 and from Kolomyia – in 1584, as well as, taking into account the majestic monumentality of the defensive-castle type of two of them: from Drohobych – in 1600 ha from the village. Radruzh -XVI century. Each of these monuments is interesting for its individual components, among which the lower and upper parts of the unique bell tower in Radruzh are particularly impressive.
It is impossible to ignore a number of interesting (antiquity, variety and effect of the image in general) bell towers of the XVII century: in Kourniki – in 1616, in Drohobych – in 1636, in Krekhov – in 1638, restoration * of the bell tower in Sophia of Kyiv – in 1651, in Pidlisky – in 1655, in Isaiah – in 1663, restoration – in the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra – in 1674, in Tupachy – in 1680, in Staraya Sol – from the XVII century, in Rozhanka Vyzhna – from the XVII century, in Chortkiv – from XVII century and in Yavoriv – also from the XVII century. All these are old monuments of this age, various and attractive as architectural objects.
From the bell towers of the XVIII century to the national fund we include only with special attention selected monuments: in the village. Pidhirtsi – from 1720, which has a brilliant combination of traditional form with impeccable proportions; in the village of Prislip – from 1729 because of a peculiar image with an expressive and elegantly elegant silhouette; in the village of Topilnytsia – since 1730 for its original and large image; in the village of Yasenytsia Zamkova – since 1760 for the architectural image famous for its galleries; in the village of Busovysko – since 1773 for a kind of loose and finely crafted in detail, eye-catching image; in the village of Pozdyach – from 1777, for a completely unusual but well-created image of a tall building; in the village of Velyka Horozhanka – from 1790, for an interesting solution of the upper part of the building; in Kamianka Strumylova – from the XVIII century, where, as well as in Yasenytsia Zamkova, almost the whole bell tower is covered with open galleries resembling theatrical lodges.
Separately, we put the bell tower of the XVIII century in the village of Yamne as a brilliant solution of an architectural structure – traditional and uniquely original with a gracefully artistic silhouette.
The bell tower in the village of Semakivtsi from the XVIII century, in the composition of which he sees the search for something new. In the eighteenth century there were many repetitions of certain schemes and components, but there was also a new, worthy contribution to the fund of national artistic treasures.
Bell towers also appeared in the 19th century and are still considered to be among the foremost monuments of Ukrainian architecture. Among them, especially interesting are those that introduce new variants of bell towers, which mainly present national features: simplicity of form, good proportions and expressiveness of the image.
Already at the beginning of our century there was a three-tiered slender and revived with beautiful openings bell tower with semicircular ends – larger on the second and smaller on the third floor – in the village Rozhanka Vyzhnya since 1804. In the same kind of three -tiered bell tower, but in different proportions, in the village of Komarnyky – since 1815, with the search for new forms of window cutouts above.
To the original by its stability of the general, widespread below, monumental form bell towers in with belong. Repel – since 1826 and especially in the village of Chukva – since 1854. Even before the appearance of the latter, which is a remnant of the watchtower, a two-story bell tower was built in the village of Trukhaniv in 1830 with a graceful silhouette …
The two-storey bell tower in the village of Barbivtsi from the XIX century is attractive not only for its simplicity and good proportions. It introduces a new and artistically beautiful elongated rhombic shape of four columns on each side of the second floor, which holds a low four-sloped pyramidal roof.
The general traditional image of a three-storey bell tower in the village of Zaberezhe from the 19th century has been successfully transferred. In this relatively recent monument, the gentle roundings of some elements (the shape of the consoles of the first floor, the outline of the octagonal bath with a fold, the beautiful shape of the head with a cross) indicate that in the XIX century Ukrainian craftsmen admired the picturesque forms of the Cossack Baroque.
Even the above-mentioned monuments are enough to recognize the national fund of Ukrainian bell towers, to a greater or lesser extent of Boyko origin, worthy of high praise among the world’s architectural monuments in wood.
Regarding the 240 leading profiles of wooden churches we have chosen, among which the monuments more or less characteristic of the Boyko type predominate. Of this number, all examples of architecture of the XVI century and a significant number of monuments of the XVII century should be included in the national fund.
Already such ancient churches have survived to the present day, ie over four centuries, being built of wood, as in Potelich – in 1502, Kovel – in 1505 (very recently demolished), in Ulyuch – in 1510 (or 1517), in Sukhodol – in 1580, in Kolomyia – in 1587 and in Kolodny – XVI century – all of them are not only “ancestors” of later wooden temples in Ukraine, but also very valuable examples of artistic composition, which shed light on the previous lost skill and laid the foundations of later developed creativity. Each of the above churches has exemplary proportions, its own individual image and inclination to the characteristic Ukrainian picturesqueness.
Not surprisingly, after the experience gained in the XVI century, at the beginning of the XVII century there is a great creative rise in wooden architecture, there are such wonderful examples of the national writing lab report papers fund as the church in the village. Muzhilovichi – was built around 1600, and even more valuable for its monumentality and beauty of the church of St. Jura in Drohobych – also around 1600. This temple – a synthesis of the past and a creative forecast of the near future – is a simultaneous synthesis of two arts – architecture and monumental painting, manifested in interior paintings. There are two more features in this monument that bring a noticeable revival to the image of the whole: an open gallery and a small extension, which contributes to a large-scale view of the building.
The church in Strybarivka since 1605 gives one of the first bursts up the central tower, which outlines the further formation of pyramidal-stepped towers.
A bold comparison of three heterogeneous forms of log houses was given in the same Drohobych, in the Church of the Ascension from 1636.
In the year of decisive victories of Bohdan Khmelnytsky for the independence of Ukraine (1654), such an original monument appeared as a massive two-log church in the village of Grabari, with low but very wide baths. And such a deviation from the usual traditional forms should enter the national fund as a search for a new, still little harmonized image.
The church in the village of Novoselytsia since 1656 with a high pointed accent over the western log cabin is interesting not only as a remnant of Gothic in wooden architecture, but also with brilliantly found proportions. These combined advantages give grounds to include this monument in the middle of the XVII century in the national fund of Ukrainian architecture.
To the same age belongs an almost symmetrically balanced church in Gorodok (since 1670), attractive in fine and rather original details, the church in Sednev (XVII century), which at one time captured the slender baroque tower of Taras Shevchenko. Both of these monuments are worthy of inclusion in the main national fund of Ukrainian architecture.
In the future we will focus only on the artistic monuments of Boyko architecture with pyramidal-stepped towers, which have all the data to recognize them as such a national fund that they can be proud of among the artistic achievements of the world.
Without repeating the analysis, let’s just list these multi-tiered churches:
in the village of Bottle of Vizhnya (XVII century), in the village of Danilche (XVII century), in the village of Radruzh, though not of this type, but in many ways an interesting monument in the village. Kulchytsy – with a peculiar solution of three multi-storey log cabins without side towers (XVII), in the village of Kapora is a wonderful proportional architectural monument of the mixed Lemko-Boyko type with a beautiful middle tower in the Boyko spirit (there is an assumption that it dates from the 17th century, but was completely restored in the 18th century).